Complications and Side Effects of Shingles in the Elderly
While many people know that shingles are related to the chickenpox virus, their often unaware of just how painful and even debilitating it can be.
A rash that develops on one side of the body or face can be quite painful. Shingles typically appear as blisters that begin scabbing over within about one week and clear up within two to four weeks.
Most people who develop shingles experience a rash that develops in a stripe on the right or left side of the body.
In rare cases, the shingles rash may appear more similar to chickenpox and be more widespread. This is usually more common in individuals with weakened immune systems.
Complications of Shingles in the Elderly
Shingles are more common than many people might think. Half of all people will have developed shingles by the time they reach age 80.
Although shingles can develop at any age, it tends to occur most frequently in people between the ages of 60 and 80. By age 60, one in three people will have had shingles. For this reason, shingles are linked to a rising threat among seniors.
What Causes Shingles
Shingles are the result of the chickenpox virus becoming reactivated. What makes it different from the regular chickenpox is that shingles generally only affects one side of the body. Shingles usually develop in three distinct phases.
3 Stages of Shingles:
- Severe tingling or pain
- Itchy rash.
- The eruption of blisters that appear similar to chickenpox
The herpes virus is responsible for shingles. Once an individual has become infected with this type of virus, the virus remains for life.
Most people never even know they have it because the virus remains inactive until the person’s immunity is weakened.
Pain Associated with Shingles
The most common complication related to shingles is pain. This is a condition known as post-herpetic neuralgia or PHN. Individuals with this complication experience severe pain in the areas where the shingles rash developed.
This pain may continue even after the rash has disappeared. Most patients with shingles find the pain subsides within a few weeks or months, but in other cases, the pain may last for years. In individuals over the age of 60, persistent pain is the most common symptom related to shingles.
Approximately one in six individuals over the age of 60 who develop shingles will experience severe pain. As individuals grow older, the chances they will develop long-term pain associated with shingles increases.
Complications of Shingles in the Elderly include:
- Bacterial infections that can result in scarring
- Hearing problems
- Vision problems
- Toxic shock syndrome due to bacterial infection
- Narcotizing fasciitis, an infection that destroys the soft tissue
- Loss of sleep
- Brain inflammation (encephalitis)
Shingles Rarely Return
In most cases, people who get shingles only experience one episode during their entire lifetime. In some rare instances, an individual can develop shingles more than once.
Individuals who are at least 60 years of age should speak to their physician about getting the shingles vaccine.
This vaccine can reduce the risk of developing shingles and the complications associated with it. Even if you have already had shingles, you can still receive the vaccine.
Passing Shingles to Others
It’s important to note that while shingles are not contagious and cannot be passed from one person to another person, the virus that causes it is contagious. This means that it’s possible to spread it from an individual who has active shingles to someone who has never had chickenpox.
In such a situation, the person contracting the virus would not develop shingles, but he or she would develop chickenpox.
This virus can be spread through direct contact with the fluid produced by the blisters that appear with shingles. Before the blisters appear, the individual is not infectious. The person is no longer contagious after the rash has crusted.
Risks Related to Seniors with Shingles
Research has now shown that seniors who develop shingles face an increased risk of having a heart attack or stroke.
Findings from a recent study indicate that the risk of stroke is more than doubled in the week following an outbreak of shingles. Heart attack risk also increases, although not as much as the risk of stroke.
While a case of shingles might not be as severe in someone in their 30s or 40s, the virus can be much more painful in someone over the age of 60.
Beyond age, other factors that can increase the risk of shingles, along with associated complications, include immune-compromising conditions and stressful life events.
The pain associated with shingles can affect the quality of one’s life and be quite debilitating. When shingles-related pain lasts for an extended period, it can prevent individuals from engaging in everyday activities.
In some cases, outbreaks that begin near the eyes or face can result in a hearing or vision problems. If the cornea of the eye is affected, shingles can even lead to permanent blindness.
Treatments for Shingles
While there are treatments available to help fight the virus, at the current time, there are no treatments capable of reversing the nerve damage resulting from Complications of Shingles in the Elderly.
For this reason, it’s sometimes necessary to try a variety of pain medications or even a combination of medications to provide adequate pain relief to patients with PHN while causing as few side effects as possible.
Treatments sometimes used to relieve the resulting nerve pain include topical lidocaine patches, anticonvulsants, tricyclic antidepressants, and opioids.
Nondrug therapies, such as biofeedback and relaxation, may also sometimes be used to assist in the treatment of pain related to shingles.
Does Medicare Pay for the Shingles Vaccine?
Original Medicare Part A and Part B do not cover the shingles vaccine.
However, Medicare Part D will cover the shingles shot, as well as all other commercially available vaccines.
Supplemental Medicare insurance plans will help fill in the gaps in coverage while under the care of your doctor.
Part D plans do not cost much; they range from anywhere between $13-$76 a month.
SHINGRIX Shingles Vaccine
CDC states that SHINGRIX is preferred over ZVL for the prevention of shingles and related complications.